The first Safavid king, Esmāʿīl I (907-30/1501-24), initiated a process of political and religious change in Persia that profoundly affected the economic structure. As is consistent with the definition of a transit economy, a majority of the aforementioned goods was never fully absorbed into Safavid Iran’s domestic economy. their skills in making ceramics and metal goods. What does contingent mean in real estate? Both the Ottoman and Mughal empires benefitted from the agricultural revenue of their land, as well as control of trade. [27] These overland merchants conducted their commerce at the many aforementioned caravanserais. Analyzing the role that the Safavid economy played within the rapidly developing global economic system. The Silk Road, which led through northern Iran to India, revived in the sixteenth century. Some of the silk originated in the Orient, and the bullion originated in the West. “Modernity and Nation-making in India, Turkey and Iran.”, Gommans, Jos. How was Safavid culture part of the empire's economy. One of these empires is the Safavids. Silk was a highly valued commodity, especially in the Ottoman Empire and Mediterranean region to the West. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Wealth and power for respect Divorce wasn't a difficult process Arabic and Persian languages are similar Women: If you got divorced after being married, it was easy to divorce To gain wealth and power, women became prostitutes Prostituting included dancing, singing, along with [11] New Julfa soon became renowned for its silk production, drawing the attention of Shah Abbas himself. Some of these camel caravans used an alternative route by way of modern day Hormuz. Under the reign of Shah Abbas, Isfahan became the undisputed capital of Safavid Iran and one of the major economic centers throughout the entire Middle East—a point which can be validated based on Isfahan’s immense population statistics. The silk industry of early modern Iran was one of the cornerstones of the Safavid economy. [14] In regards to exports, the Mughals also had the Safavids bested in terms of the amount and type of goods and services exported. This is due to one simple fact: Safavid Iran possessed vital geographic proximity between the highly productive Orient and consumption hungry Europe. [22] Furthermore, one can argue that Qandahar’s significance gravitates southward due to its ties to maritime trade routes. Weaknesses of the Safavid Empire. “Muslim Civilization in India – Part Two: The Mughal Period, Chapter 17.” In, Khazeni, Arash. The export aspect of Safavid Iran’s transit economy centered chiefly around the trading of silk. There are several contributing factors which resulted in Safavid Iran’s comparatively irregular economic construction. Safavid Persian Empire's national animal is the Lion, which frolics freely in the nation's many lush forests. Handwoven carpets were very popular. Abbas I also supported direct trade with Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands, which sought Iranian carpets, silk, and textiles. “The Horse Trade in Eighteenth-Century South Asia.”, Ikram, S. M., Frances W. Pritchett, and Barbara Metcalf. The primary reason why the impact of the Safavid economy may have paled in comparison to larger nation states and empires is because the economy did not function in a “traditional” sense. Rudi Mathee, “The Safavid Economy as Part of the World Economy,” in, Rudi Mathee, “Between Venice and Surat: The Trade in Gold in Late Safavid Iran,”, Linda K. Steinmann, “Shah ‘Abbas and the Royal Silk Trade 1599-1629,”, Muzzafar Alam, “Trade, State Policy and Regional Change: Aspects of Mughal-Uzbek Commercial Relations, C. 1550-1750,”, S. M. Ikram, Frances W. Pritchett, and Barbara Metcalf, “Muslim Civilization in India – Part Two: The Mughal Period, Chapter 17,” in, Derek Bryce, Kevin D. O’Gorman, and Ian W.F. The Persian carpet and textile industries flourished with his support, and Abbas extended a royal monopoly over silk, which was exported in immense quantities. vii. Copyright © 2021 Multiply Media, LLC. “The City of Balkh and the Central Eurasian Caravan Trade in the Early Nineteenth Century.”, Lambourn, Elizabeth. [26] Many chose the maritime route, but those who decided on taking the overland route were often trying to maximize their profits by trading en route to their destination. The Shah’s that followed Shah Abbas were ineffectual towards the empire. Al-Kazimiyyah Shrine The Al-Kazimiyyah Shrine was origanly built in 799, but was ordered to be reconstructed in 1508. According to many historians, the Safavid empire marked the beginning of modern Persia. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. It was this privileged treatment that arguably propelled New Julfa to “unparalleled heights of economic prosperity.”[12]. While silk had always been a highly sought after Persian commodity, dating back to ancient times, the Safavid era produced one of the most lucrative silk industries of the early modern world. Additionally, since there are very few detailed accounts of trade routes like this one in this area of the world, it falls within the scope of this paper’s analysis. According to Stephen Dale, “Mughal rulers had the luxury of being able merely to preside over a powerful laissez faire economy that allowed them to have what was essentially a free-trade foreign economic policy, while Shah Abbas instituted a kind of state capitalism and an Iranian mercantilism to develop and protect his state’s more fragile economic circumstance.”[16] It is important to note, however, that the extent of Safavid Iran’s economic impact does not begin or end with the reign of Shah Abbas. in Turkey, to train administrators to replace the traditional warrior elite. [8], A majority of Iran’s silk production occurred in the areas near the Caspian Sea. For the Mughals, a majority of their trade relations with Persia began and ended in Lahore. Early on, the Safavids were at a disadvantage to the better-armed Ottomans, but they soon closed the arms gap. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Abbas managed to destroy the rival Turkish Gazilbash tribes, reform the army, and create a prosperous economy based on the trade of luxury goods, especially silk brocades. Many of these routes passed through imperial Isfahan. However, because the stretch of road from Lahore to Qandahar is so well known, we will instead focus on the route as it begins in Qandahar. By Connor J. HamelCompetitive Intelligence AnalystAccenture Federal Services. Indo-Iranian Commercial Relations.”, Mathee, Rudi. [41] Furthermore, the abundant economic activity which transpired was fueled by Iran’s geographic location between the highly productive Orient and the consumption hungry West. Elphinstone observed that pastoral nomadic tribes played a central role in this trade as “intermediaries carrying goods and as suppliers of livestock.”[34] The specific livestock being referenced here is the “strong and active breed of horse” that Balkh’s Central Eurasian horse trade became famous for. One form of economic exchange that may serve as the best example of this “interactive continuum” would be the trade and transit of bullion and silk. The Safavid Empire lasted until 1736. In regards to Russian transactions, Mathee claims “a contemporary source indicates that the Russians had to pay half to one-third of the price of the goods they received from Iran in the form of silver and gold coins.”[13] We can infer from this information that Safavid Iran maintained a trade surplus with the major players to the North and West. The Safavid dynasty (/ ˈ s æ f ə v ɪ d, ˈ s ɑː-/; Persian: دودمان صفوی ‎, romanized: Dudmâne Safavi, pronounced [d̪uːd̪ˈmɒːne sæfæˈviː]) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran from 1501 to 1736. As a result, conventional wisdom has incorrectly bred the notion that Safavid Iran’s economic impact was minimal. Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because Despite the global scope of these developments, there are very few publications which properly document the role that Safavid Iran’s economy played within this complex system. In relation to Safavid Iran’s “more fragile economic circumstance,” the Safavids managed to accumulate a “trade deficit with the Indian subcontinent, which stood in contrast to the country’s position vis-à-vis the Ottoman Empire and Russia.”[17] This is because the overarching economic strategy of Safavid Iran was to generate economic growth by leveraging its geographic position and emphasis on the transit, and not the production, of goods – with the exception of silk. Evidence of this phenomenon is fairly well documented, as it served as the catalyst which transformed civilizations in nearly every corner of the world. In India, in places as varied as Surat, Ahmedabad and Agta, interest rates fell from 72per centto 6-9 per cent per annum between the 1620s and the 1680s,21 The Safavid Economy as Part of the World Econonry 37 ln an annual minimum of 6 per cent was charged in Sural.zz In lran, in con- 1697, trast, commercial loans around 7640 carriedanannualinterest oft5 to 20 per cent, while Banyan … Oct 1, 1587. [18] In addition to popular trade routes, the caravanserais could also be found along pilgrimage routes and soon became synonymous with the grand bazaars of major Iranian urban centers.[19].