Multiplexer 4. Numerical relays are based on the use of microprocessors. ABB has delivered numerical relays worldwide. the selection and application of protective relays in the overall protection system, multifunctional numerical devices application for power distribution and industrial systems, and addresses some key concerns in selecting, coordinating, setting The digital protective relay is a protective relay that uses a microprocessor to analyze power system voltages, currents or other process quantities for the purpose of detection of faults in an electric power system or industrial process system. For example, we have the following protections in numerical relays in-built into one relay. It is also called numerical relay. Figure 4 illustrates the relationship between f/# and NA. Sample and hold circuit 2. Transient testing is excellent method to validate the numerical relay algorithms based on the require application. The numerical relay is defined as the relay which is constructed by using computer or microprocessor. Design & Principle NI 40/41 series relays are based on numerical microprocessor based technology. 36 COST OF NUMERICAL RELAYS Modern numerical protection devices have multiple protection elements and this technique makes the cost of the relay comparable with that of electromechanical and static relays … It is generally made of following components 1. The Numerical Aperture (NA) and f-number (f/#) of a lens measure the amount of light it can collect based on f, D, index of refraction (n), and Acceptance Angle (θ). Figures 6a - 6e compare a variety of lens systems for a relay lens, or 1:1 imaging, application. APPLICATION OF NUMERICAL RELAYS FOR HV SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION Z. Gajić, B. Hillstrőm, M. Kockott ABB Automation Technologies AB Vasteras, Sweden ABSTRACT Viewed in the substation yard, an HV, oil immersed, shunt reactor does not differ much from a power Numerical relay is actually the digital relay as a unit for which manufacturers has developed standardized hardware, which can be used in conjunction with suitably developed software to meet variety of production requirements and applications. Hardware for Metering: In principle, the hardware setup discussed above can be used for both measurement and protection function. Electromechanical and static relays have fixed wiring and the setting is manual. NI 40/41 provides feeder protection applications with the best performance usability in its class and protection and numerical technology, backed by years of service performance across applications. 1 Programmability of Numerical Relays: A Busbar Protection Relay Serves as a Traditional RTU Casper Labuschagne, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA, USA Izak van der Merwe, Eskom Resources and Strategy Division, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract -- Numerical relays have revolutionized protection, control, metering, and communication in power systems. The first numerical relays were released in 1985. A digital protective relay may also be called a "numeric protective relay". Description and definition. The acceptance of numerical realsy as one-to-one substitutes for conventional relays seems to be fairly universal. Anti-aliasing filter 3. A number of applications of numerical relays are discussed. 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