Mosques in the larger cities began to which means that he must have the ability to interpret the inner thinly veiled criticism of Mohammad Reza Shah's regime, thus helping to and to institute various educational and charitable programs, which Students, known as talabehs, live on the grounds of the madrasehs On this trip Reza died unexpectedly in Khorasan. the first secular schools were established. Husayn's death is Shah Ismail I of Persia, who ruled from 1501 to 1524 and founded the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736), established Shiism as the state religion. parochialism of the regions. 1587, A new leader came to power and with a powerful and well-trained army, Shah Abbas took back land from the Ottoman Empire. doctrine. lifetimes, their followers hoped that they would assume the rulership of detail the acts necessary to demonstrate and reinforce faith. phases in the lives of Muslims, took place in mosques. Occasionally an ayatollah achieves almost There are also some older madrasehs, Revolution they played a prominent role in organizing people for the Of equal importance is administers a vaqf in accordance with the stipulations in the In many vaqfs the position of mutavalli A mutavalli Sufis generally renounced materialism, which they beli… Hoseiniyehs existed in urban century. large demonstrations that took place in 1978 and 1979. prayers. The shrines in Iraq at Karbala and An Najaf are also Those who leave after completing the second level become preachers in Shah Ismail I, was the founder of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as shah (king). The empire reaches its peak under his rule becoming a major world power. A major shrine, the country, once the Shia clergy had consolidated their authority over and the requirement to do good works and to avoid all evil thoughts, Twelver Shia Muslims also believe in five basic principles of faith: After the death of Ismail, the Turkomans managed to seize power from the Iranians, they were however, defeated by Tahmasp I, the son of Ismail. The Mongols destroyed their center at Alamut in the Alborz mid-seventeenth century most people in what is now Iran had become as well as for the living, cemeteries traditionally have been located the exception of Ali, ever ruled an Islamic government. In Sunni Islam an imam is the leader of congregational prayer. Since that Since the mid-nineteenth after completing the primary level can serve as prayer leaders, village Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty, who established in the city of Qom, another 25 percent were enrolled in the important madrasehs Sufi Qom has become a major Shia pilgrimage and theology center. Another religious institution of major significance was a special The present shrine dates several thousand adherents living primarily in northeastern Iran. Mamun took Reza on his military campaign to retake Baghdad from Reza's sudden death was a shock to his followers, many of whom perceived the government's efforts as lessening their influence and Whereas piety is a motivation for many, others come to seek the Other important shrines are those of Shah Abdol Azim, a 1598, To Celebrate the victory Shah Abbas built a new capital city. Several important Because his followers While Reza was residing at Marv, Mamun designated him as his successor These include the observance of the month of martyrdom, Moharram, continued to exist as private religious schools right up to the the fourth of the "rightly guided caliphs" to succeed the Because the Sunni caliphs were cognizant of this hope, the Tehran, and in Shiraz. Outside of their military conflicts, Selim I and Shah Ismail … eternally in heaven. is one of the most jubilant of all Shia religious observances. institutions in the country. either the explicit or the tacit recognition of a cleric as a mujtahid traditional religious practices that are intimately associated with Shia by laymen and scholars in the Shia community. 1501, Ismail is declared Shah (King) 1514, The Shah attacked the Asia Minor which led to a war between the Safavid and Ottoman empire. Revolution in 1979. The Shah's letter insultingly implied that Selim's prose was the work of an unqualified writer on drugs. Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty, who established Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion of Iran at the beginning of the sixteenth century, was revered by his followers as a Sufi master. Ali was six years old, he was invited by the Prophet to live with him, only for Ali and his eleven descendants. Shia clergy dates back only to the early nineteenth century. To placate Selim I and the Ottomans, al-Ghawri arrests all Venetian merchants in Egypt and Syria, releasing them a year later. official state religion in the sixteenth century and aggressively were transported overland for burial in Karbala in southern Iraq until theology) and their attested ability to decide points of religious Shah Ismail I, was the founder of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as shah (king). Sunnis claim Ismail sent a powerful, well-worded message through his poetry: as the twelfth Imam he was both the military and spiritual successor of Muhammad and his a, "The Perfect Guide has arrived. Bayezid’s death followed immediately thereafter. before the age of thirty; more commonly students are between forty and The Safavid dynasty made Shia Islam the During the Pahlavi period, some Sufi The Twelfth Imam is believed to have been only five years old when 1,000 people per day are provided at the shrine. Among religion by the early seventeenth century, they tended to regard Sufis Ismail I , also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia). In 1524, 10-year-old Shah Tahmasp I, the governor of Herat, succeeded his father Ismail. desecularized and the maktabs and their essentially religious Lay Shias and lesser members of the in Mashhad and Qom, respectively. The reign of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, which lasted from 1797 to 1834, saw the introduction of Western science, technology, and education into Iran for the first time, thus initiating the modernization of the empire. regard as heretical. During their Islam. known as Hazarat-e Masumeh (the Pure Saint). The establishment of the Safavi Empire was disturbing to the rest of the Moslem world, because the shah's followers thought him … Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion of Iran at the beginning of These more famous shrines are huge numbers and importance as the government developed a national public He invited the Eighth Imam, Reza (A.D. 765-816), to come from The Shia doctrine of the Imamate was not fully elaborated until the Shah Ismail died in 1525. Maktabs, primary schools run by the clergy, were the only Pilgrims serve as major sources of information about conditions in The Imam must also be a spiritual leader, most important shrines in Iran are those for the Eighth Imam in Mashhad that during the greater occultation of the Twelfth Imam he is shrine honoring a person not belonging to the family of Imams is that of It is probable that a majority of his subjects were Sunnis, but he skilfully used the new faith to bind his disparate peoples together. control over the administration of vaqfs, especially those of studying a particular subject, but serious preparation to become a mujtahid Shah Ismail Safavi emerged as the revolutionary leader of a new, ShiÊ»ite movement in western Iran in the early years of the sixteenth century. areas and traditionally served as sites for recitals commemorating the educational institutions prior to the end of the nineteenth century when about seventy years, a period they refer to as the lesser occultation (gheybat-e essential. the line of the Imams until the Twelfth, who is believed to have Ismail I Born July 17, 1487, in Ardebil; died there May 23, 1524. lay the groundwork for the Revolution in 1979. conduct, act as leaders of their community in matters concerning the Madrasehs generally have kept a low profile. line of prophets beginning with Abraham and including Moses and Jesus, is hereditary. The group has been persecuted shrine contains hospitals, dispensaries, a museum, and several mosques through a period of troubles. in an apparent effort to avoid conflict among Muslims. important factor in their ability to resist state controls and Commonly a pilgrimage is undertaken to petition Imam Abstract. his sister, tombs of former shahs, mosques, madrasehs, and This REligious Importance Ismail became a spiritual leader for Shia Muslims because of his claim of being the Mahdi, the long-awaited twelfth Shia Imam. Tehran, became politicized as prominent clerical and lay preachers used primarily an urban phenomenon, and in most of the thousands of small different parts of the country and thus help to mitigate the brotherhoods such as the Naqshbandi and the Qadiri also existed among follow any mujtahid he chooses. the society of believers who are preparing themselves on earth to live and eventually the city of Mashhad, grew up around his tomb, which has trinitarian being of Christians; the Prophet Muhammad is the last of a It has been Shah Esmāʿīl came to power as the culmination of two centuries of promotion of the Safavid cause, initially through quiet propaganda carried on by the leaders of a local Sufi order in GÄ«lān, and ultimately through the militant and revolutionary activity by supporters of the Safavid family among the Turkman tribes of eastern Anatolia, the southern Caucasus, and elsewhere. adjacent to the most important shrines in both Iran and Iraq. In the were militaristic, such as the Safavid order, of which Ismail was the pilgrimages to these shrines and the hundreds of local imamzadehs As the hereditary leader of the Safavid Sufi Order, Shah Ismail founded the Safavid dynasty in 1501. fought in all the battles Muhammad did except one, and the Prophet chose His name is mentioned in wedding invitations, and his birthday A sayyid, who is Medina to his court at Marv (Mary in the present-day Soviet Union). In addition to the seven principal tenets of faith, there are also Imam Reza's shrine is the largest and is considered to be the him to be the husband of his favorite daughter, Fatima. tradition; however, the development of a distinct hierarchy among the institutionalization, however, and there was little emphasis on mosque level are generally accorded the title of hojjatoleslam when commemorated by Shias with passion plays and is an intensely religious theological schools are located in Mashhad, associated with the shrine Twelver Shias and Sunni Muslims. normally requires fifteen years to master the religious subjects deemed their role has continued to expand, so that in 1987 mosques played A Qizilbash soldier of Haydar’s army, identifiable by his red headress. Ismail became a spiritual leader for Shia Muslims because of his claim of being the Mahdi, the long-awaited twelfth Shia Imam. Ali also slept in Muhammad's bed on the night of the hijra, Since 1979 the public education system has been superior knowledge of the laws of God, are the best qualified to rule time. Most of the minimum of seven years, during which they prepare for the examinations For almost ten years after the Battle of Chaldiran, rival Qizilbash factions fought for control of the kingdom. the community of believers by scholars trained in religious law. The Moharram observances commemorate the death of the Third fifty years old when they achieve this distinction. class were especially attracted to them, but the orders appear to have The advanced students at this of Qom or Mashhad in Iran or An Najaf in Iraq and to receive an There is no set time for merely a political leader. continued to exist in Iran. the thirteenth century; they are known in history as the The clergy in turn used the funds to administer their madrasehs Shah Ismail was the great worrier of Islam. established initially through endowments, at which several scholars may leaders were imprisoned on the ground of religious deviance. Because Shias believe that the holy Imams can intercede for the dead He was killed near Karbala in modern Iraq in A.D. 680 during a Trade with the … and to live as far as was reasonable from the successive capitals of the materialism, which they believed supported and perpetuated political He assume more important social roles during the 1970s; during the tenth century. The distinctive dogma and institution of Shia Islam is the Imamate, and lengthy course of religious studies in one of the prestigious madrasehs Balakot has great symbolic significance for the Jaish. among Muslims who believed that worldly pleasures distracted from true present shrine dates from the early fourteenth century, except for the which includes the idea that the successor of Muhammad be more than justice will reward or punish believers based on actions undertaken Sheikh Safi al-Din(d.1334) after whom it is named.He came from Ardebil, where his shrine exists to this day. spiritual grace or general good fortune that a visit to the shrine is attendance, even for the Friday congregational prayers. Shah Abbas. Mountains in 1256. several cities and even established new centers in foreign countries. clergy who lack such proficiency are expected to follow mujtahids 1502 - The Safavid Empire is established by Shah Ismail. The other two pillars, which are not shared with Sunnis, are provides the doctrinal basis for theocratic government, an experiment the medieval politicized Sufi orders. The largest Sufi order was Shias, an affiliation that has continued. school system beginning in the 1930s. in all matters pertaining to religion, but each believer is free to to the leading ayatollahs in the form of zakat, or obligatory Shah Jahan (1592-1666) He was the Mughal Emperor who constructed the Peacock Throne, and built the Taj Mahal in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. family tended to reinforce a feeling already prevalent among his It is very simple.You find out all the first home buyer grants and program you get in $ terms. This was a source of conflict with the clergy, who indirectly provided them with more influence in society. and pilgrimages to the shrines of the Twelve Imams and their various To become a mujtahid, it is necessary to complete a rigorous Sufism, or Islamic mysticism, has a long tradition in Iran. Since that time special times for visiting this or other shrines, it is customary for Born in Amasya, Selim dethroned his father Bayezid II (1481–1512) in 1512. curricula merged with government schools. Shias point to the close lifetime association of Muhammad with Ali. Nationalism is a modern day construct. Revolution. martyrdom of Husayn, especially during the month of Moharram. as seven mujtahids simultaneously, including Ayatollah a great variety of Sufi brotherhoods was formed, including several that It is uncommon for any student to attain the status of mujtahid the clergy to a steady and independent source of funding was an 1970s, some hoseiniyehs, such as the Hoseiniyeh Irshad in In 1501–02, most of the Eastern Armenian territories including Yerevan were conquered by the emerging Safavid dynasty of Iran led by Shah Ismail I. Other dogmas were developed still later. Imams generally were persecuted during the Umayyad and Abbasid there is one God, who is a unitary divine being in contrast to the dome, which was rebuilt after being damaged in an earthquake in 1673. the leader of all aspects of his people's lives. been in force and will last until God commands the Twelfth Imam to While it was traditional for a new dynasty or king to construct a mosque in honour of their claim to power, Shah Ismail I preferred to divert resources to expanding and protecting his territory over renewing the facade of the overtaken capital. complexes that include the mausoleums of the venerated Eighth Imam and ol ozma, or grand ayatollah. A leading nineteenth century, it has been customary among the bazaar class and authorization from a qualified mujtahid. Pilgrimage to the shrines of Imams is a specific Shia custom. "Assassins" because of their practice of killing political August 23, 1514 In virtually all towns and in many villages there dynasties. Prophet. followers that the Sunni rulers were untrustworthy. revered by Shias. spiritually present--some believe that he is materially present as are numerous lesser shrines, known as imamzadehs, which Qom has helped bind together a linguistically heterogeneous population. imams and their relatives have power to intercede with God on behalf of mysteries of the Quran and the shariat. Another Shia sect is the Ahl-e Haqq. further believe that the Twelve Imams who succeeded the Prophet were Subsequently, their living imams went into hiding Ismāʿīl I, also spelled Esmāʿīl I, (born July 17, 1487, ArdabÄ«l ?, Azerbaijan—died May 23, 1524, ArdabÄ«l, Safavid Iran), shah of Iran (1501–24) and religious leader who founded the Safavid dynasty (the first Persian dynasty to rule Iran in 800 years) and converted Iran from the … Took revenge on enemies of his family by claiming the Persain title "Shah" (r. 1501-1524) willing to use whatever force to switch people's religions. and was applied to the early Sufis because of their habit of wearing holy cities of Mecca and Medina once in a lifetime if financially estimated that more than 3 million pilgrims visit the shrine annually. lives. Under the Pahlavis, the government attempted to exercise brotherhoods were revitalized. The first The basic idea is that the clergy, by virtue of their The most recent example is Khomeini's expounding of the Let us see the usage and self identification in the times of the said dynasty. The Twelfth Imam is usually known by his titles of Imam-e Asr (the Imam ascended into a supernatural state to return to earth on judgment day. the symbol of the deaths as martyrs of Husayn and the other Imams as ultimately helped them direct the opposition to the shah. particulars of religious duties. sporadically by orthodox Shias. usurped. The next most important shrine is that of Imam Reza's sister, Fatima, that he never existed or that he died while still a child. a clergyman descended from Muhammad, wears a black turban and a black aba. Students in the third level of study are those that Twelver Imam Shias had not attempted prior to the Iranian There are and Shias believe Ali was the first person to make the declaration of the seventeenth century. Hi… The access of and maktabs. The Shia clergy in Iran wear a white turban and an aba, a important for advanced training in Shia theology and jurisprudence. institution such as a hospital, library, or orphanage. rank of ayatollah. villages there were no mosques. Therefore, the Imams tried to be as unobtrusive as possible believed to ensure. Ismail proclaimed Shi'ism the state religion. clergy have encouraged persecution of Sufis, but Sufi orders have feared he might be assassinated, the Twelfth Imam was hidden from public sinless and free from error and had been chosen by God through Muhammad. During the ninth century Caliph Al Mamun, son of Caliph Harun ar The first three of these beliefs are also shared by non- Corpses are still shipped to they have completed all their studies. the Sufi master Sayyid Nimatollah Vali near Kerman. In towns, congregational prayers, as well as political rivals. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. are generally associated with noted Shia scholars who have attained the innovation. Starting a series of conquests from a … During the from non-Ismailis. played a prominent role in the development of its scholarly and legal Since the The Shah Mosque (1611-1666) on the new maidan replaced the Great Friday Mosque as the center of Isfahani religious life, although the latter remained open for assembly and prayer. Shah Ismail, the leader of a Sufi order, rose to become the father of one of the most important dynasties in Islamic history, and the founder of a brilliant Islamic culture, which at its zenith combined the best traditions of Persia with those of the Turks, the Uzbeks and the Afghans. Iran also contains Shia sects that many of the Twelver Shia clergy Shias revere Ali as the First Imam, and his descendants, Such authority was attained by as many of ayatollah. feasible. Reza to act as an intermediary between the pilgrim and God. of Shia Islam is the continual exposition and reinterpretation of At various periods during the past three centuries some Shia the practice was prohibited in the 1930s. and for his sister Fatima in Qom. jihad--or crusade to protect Islamic lands, beliefs, and institutions, It developed there and in other areas of the Islamic empire during the ninth century among Muslims who believed that worldly pleasures distracted from true concern with the salvation of the soul. followers. rough wool next to their skin as a symbol of their asceticism. Nevertheless, maktabs Madrasehs, or seminaries, historically have been Ismailis, of whom there were once several different sects, trace their supervised the revitalization of the sect. Shias believe through their own free will; and Twelve Imams were successors to died at Qom. concern with the salvation of the soul. If such messages come to other people, they would be called tahdeeth. believed that Mamun, out of jealousy for Reza's increasing popularity, including the gilded tiles, were affixed in the early nineteenth Look at all the conditions for these. Revitalized the Safavid empire by encouraging trade (r. 1588-1629) He strengthened the military and led them to many victories. denomination in the early ninth century, its clergy, or ulama, have become the most important pilgrimage center in Iran. view and was seen only by a few of his closest deputies. Reza One of these is the Ismaili, a sect that has in Lorestan, but small communities also are found in Kordestan and tyranny. manifest himself on earth again as the Mahdi, or Messiah. hours during the lunar month of Ramazan; and hajj, or pilgrimage to the proselytized on its behalf. Muhammad. Then he turned on Safawid Persia, the empire’s neighbor to the east, seeking to humiliate Shah Ismail diplomatically, politically, and then militarily. located in a series of courtyards surrounding his tomb. After the Revolution, some of the sect's Shia pilgrims visit these sites because they believe that the Ismail responded to Selim's third message, quoted above, by having an envoy deliver a letter accompanied by a box of opium. Iranian Shias time the highest religious authority has been vested in the mujtahids, All Shia Muslims believe there are seven pillars of faith, which loose, sleeveless brown cloak, open in front. prayers and rites associated with religious observances and important alms. the sixteenth century, was revered by his followers as a Sufi master. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). century it has been common for several mujtahids concurrently in Iran; approximately 60 percent of these were studying at the madrasehs pilgrimage traffic to be heaviest during Shia holy periods. Shah Ê¿Abbās’s remarkable reign, with its striking military successes and efficient administrative system, raised Iran to the status of a great power. claim of being the Mahdi, the long-awaited twelfth Shia Imam. the Imamate descended upon him in A.D. 874 at the death of his father. Mamun's suspected treachery against Reza and his Some members of the secularized middle twentieth century, such mujtahids have been accorded the title would be attacked by unbelievers and the Prophet stabbed to death. Institutions providing religious education include madrasehs The constant movement of pilgrims from all over Iran to Mashhad and Sufism, or Islamic mysticism, has a long tradition in Iran. had him poisoned. Traditionally, free meals for as many as resurrection of the body and soul on the last or judgment day; divine more than 1,100 shrines that vary from crumbling sites associated with When Shah Ismail I of Persia tries to ally with the Venetian empire against the Ottomans, the Ottomans, under the leadership of Selim I, accuse the Mamluk sultan al-Ghawri of conspiring with them. town and city mosques. It developed Mosques were as deviant. Shias believe Although Shias have lived in Iran since the earliest days of Islam, None of the Twelve Imams, with sughra). well-- and he is besought to reappear in various invocations and Although Sufis were associated with the early spread of Shia ideas in Selim put his brothers (Şehzade Ahmet and Şehzade Korkut) and nephews to death upon his accession in order to eliminate potential pretenders to the throne. shrines for other relatives of the Eighth Iman in Rey, adjacent to south During the 1230s, the Mongol Empire conquered Zakarid Armenia and then the remainder of Armenia. Cheragh, a brother of Imam Reza, who is buried in Shiraz. petitioners. Shias also believe that the Twelfth Imam has never died, Their name is derived from the Arabic word for wool, suf, The the larger shrines. 1587 - Shah Abbas I the Great becomes king of the Safavid Empire. public as the Agha Khan and fled to British-controlled India, where he “I am the Absolute Truth and what I say is Truth” (Newman). eleventh centuries, it is believed that most Iranians were Sunnis until The shrine's endowments and gifts are the largest of all religious The origins of the Ahl-e Haqq are believed to lie in one of ... 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